Blockchain is a quite new, disruptive and game changing technology that we hear about all the time, especially when it's related to Bitcoins and other cryptocurrencies.
But blockchain is much, much more than that. Bitcoin is not blockchain and Blockchain is not Bitcoin.
In fact, blockchain is the technology on which cryptocurrencies are based on. A bit like Facebook uses the internet but obviously Internet is much more than just Facebook.
Before Satoshi Nakamoto ( the pseudo under the creator of Bitcoin) launched Bitcoin in 2009, the government free currency he envisioned, he developed the blockchain technology which is by itself a huge work, making us think that "Nakamoto" is in fact a team of people that to this day remains anonymous.
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Cryptography Hash Function
While the term itself may seem intimidating, cryptographic hash functions are relatively easy to understand.
We won’t get into too much detail but it’s an important topic as it is the way the blocks are “digitally” attached together.
Such a function is a mathematical equation that will transform any kind of input into a fixed length output.
The input can be a book, a phone number, any characters the output will always be the same length.
Easy to compute: It must be easy and fast for any computer to calculate the output which is the result of that equation.
Deterministic: a given input will always give the same output when the hash function is applied.
Image resistant: From the output it’s infeasible to find the input.
Actually with enough computational power and millions of years in front of you could find the input, so we say it’s “infeasible” not impossible.
Collision resistant: It must be extremely unlikely— in other words, practically impossible— to find two different inputs that produce the same output
If you change any character, even a simple capital letter into a small one the output will look totally different, only the length remains the same.